The 38th International Scientific and Expert Meeting of Gas Professionals, along with the traditional international exhibition of gas equipment and technologies, was successfully held in the Congress Center of the Grand Hotel Adriatic in Opatija in the period 10-12 May 2023 and organized by Croatian Gas Centre Ltd and the Croatian Gas Association (CGA) as a member of the International Gas Union (IGU)

Over the three days in Opatija, more than 500 attendees met from 21 European countries, including China and the Kingdom of Saudia Arabia. The exceptionally well-attended meeting gathered numerous gas and energy professionals, managers of European energy companies, scientists from Croatian and European universities, representatives from the gas transmission industry, as well as gas suppliers, producers, and distributors, including representatives from large industrial gas consumers, manufacturers and representatives of gas equipment from Croatia and abroad. An invitation lecture was held, including 18 roundtable presentations and five interesting interactive panel discussions, presenting 28 scientific and professional papers and two expert papers in the poster section. In all, 188 gas and energy companies and organizations (71 were from abroad) were represented, including 30 exhibitors (14 were from abroad) presenting their products and services in the exhibition premises in front of the congress halls.

The meeting was organized under the high patronage of the Croatian Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development, the Croatian Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure, and the Croatian Chamber of Economy. The event was also supported by the main partner Siemens Energy d. o. o., and the following sponsors: INA – Industrija nafte d.d., LNG Croatia LLC, Plinacro d. o. o., Prvo plinarsko društvo d. o. o., Monter-strojarske montaže d. d., the Central European Gas Hub (CEGH), HEP d. d.,  Chart Ferox a. s., Tallon Commodities Limited, Monting d. o. o., Gaztransport & Technigaz (GTT), and Međimurje-plin d. o. o. as well as the co-organizers Underground gas storage Ltd. and Termoplin d. d. Varaždin.

At the opening of the meeting, the President of the Croatian Gas Association, Assist Prof Dalibor Pudić, greeted invitees and attendees. He extended his appreciation for the attendance of the Minister of the Economy and Sustainable Development, Davor Filipović, the Vice President and future President of the International Gas Union (IGU), Andre Stegher, the Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ljiljana Lovrić, Advisor to the Embassy of the Kingdom of Saudia Arabia, Mohammed Tarief A Al Fageer Alanazy, Vice President of the Governing Council of the Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency, Željko Vrban, and attending members of the Governing Council, including patrons, sponsors, participating organizers, participants and journalists who contributed to making the gathering possible. In the opening introductory section of the gathering, he outlined the events that took place over the past year in the gas industry. The decision by the Republic of Croatia to limit gas prices has helped citizens and the economy overcome huge price rises in the European gas market. Due to the warm winter, gas storage facilities have remained reasonably well-filled, and the gas price is currently stable at approx. 40 EUR/MWh. In presenting the global trends, he pointed out that the global (including Croatian) total energy consumption per capita is growing, with gas and electricity even more. Sources of renewable energy before 2019 accounted for approx. 10% of demand for new energy, with coal continuing to be a major factor. Given these circumstances, gas is essential in reducing emissions as a replacement for coal and can be suitably combined with renewable energy sources. Despite a relatively large reduction in the EU, global greenhouse gas emissions for 2010-2019 increased by approx. 10% and continue to grow due to increased emissions from India and other developing countries. He also expressed special concern about increasing energy poverty and expected energy prices for the citizens of Europe in the coming years. The Croatian Gas Association’s President invited the Ministry for Economy and Sustainable Development, Davor Filipović, to address the attendees and officially open the meeting.

The Minister of Economy and Sustainable Development, Davor Filipović, opened the 38th International Scientific and Expert Meeting of Gas Professionals. In his presentation, he pointed out that the war in Ukraine has caused a major energy crisis in Europe, which had to adapt to the new circumstances. Energy suppliers were ensured at affordable prices, and non-market pressures on gas and electricity prices were mitigated, ensuring stability and ongoing economic activity. He also noted that energy prices in Croatia are among the lowest in Europe and that in the coming period, he does not expect an escalation of gas prices (and electricity), which today is at about 40 EUR/MWh in Europe. Given these circumstances, the Republic of Croatia accelerated the transition towards renewable energy sources. An international call for the geothermal exploitation of six exploration fields has been announced for the first time. Also, the aim is to triple the number of solar panels used by households to produce energy for their needs with the support of the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund. Furthermore, calls were announced for entrepreneurs to apply for grants for investments in competitiveness within the framework of the Modernisation Fund (worth about one billion euros), and some of the investment is for promoting energy production by entrepreneurs for their own needs. The Croatian Government has set the goal of installing at least 2,500 MW of new renewable energy sources by 2030. Minister Davor Filipović also commented on Croatia’s hydrogen strategy for 2050 and Croatia’s active involvement in the North Adriatic Hydrogen Valley project together with Slovenia and the Italian Autonomous Region of Friuli-Venezia-Giulia. He highlighted the accelerated change to the energy paradigm, requiring the involvement of all stakeholders in transitioning toward a low-carbon society, which importantly requires diversification of sources for better connectivity and positioning Croatia as an energy hub in this part of Europe.

Frane Barbarić, the President of the Management Board of HEP d. d., pointed out the important contribution of HEP d. d. in overcoming the challenges stemming from extreme price disruptions in the gas market. As a guaranteed supplier, HEP d. d. now supplies all gas customers whose suppliers have experienced difficulties or have been granted preferential status thanks to the Croatian Government’s measures. HEP d. d. has played an important role in the construction and operation of the LNG terminal on the island of Krk, and its capacities were utilized optimally, eliminating Croatia’s dependence on Russian gas. The President of the Management Board of HEP d. d., Frane Barbarić believes that the future of gas is based on three requirements: supply security, energy transition, and gas supply accessibility. He pointed out the intensive activities undertaken by HEP d. d. in terms of the cycle of investments in wind and solar power plants. He expects the commissioning of 10 solar power plants by the end of the summer. More than 60 renewable sources projects with a total capacity of more than 1500 MW and an estimated investment value of EUR 1.6 billion are currently under development. At the end of his address, he highlighted the important role of natural gas as a key energy source for at least another two more decades, which is followed by hydrogen, and requiring the gas infrastructure to be adapted to hydrogen utilization.

Miroslav Skalicki, a member of the Management Board of INA-Industrija nafte d. d., said that INA-Industrija nafte d.d. as an oil company, is adapting to the new era of the energy transition towards green energy. In a few years, the Rijeka Refinery plans to start producing green hydrogen (necessary for processing petroleum products) using electricity from a solar power plant that will be built at the refinery. Gas production in the northern Adriatic is expected to increase, halting the multi-year decline in production. In its business plans, INA is also considering the possibility of generating electricity from wind power plants in the Adriatic. A solar power plant has been built in Molve, and is the second largest solar power plant in the Republic of Croatia, which will be commissioned at the end of May. Last year, INA-Industrija nafte d. d. produced and delivered gas and petroleum products without encountering difficulties.

The Member of the Management Board of Plinacro d. o. o., Daria Krstičević, MSc, pointed out that the constructed LNG terminal on the island of Krk and the Omišalj-Zlobin gas pipeline played an important role in overcoming the energy crisis. She announced a new cycle of investments and upgrading the pipeline system for increased capacities at the LNG terminal on the island of Krk. The 58-kilometer Zlobin-Bosiljevo gas pipeline valued at EUR 155 million will be built. Plinacro d. o. o. also has an active role in projects for connecting the gas pipeline system in Croatia to the Adriatic-Ionian Pipeline (IAP) and constructing a southern connection with the gas system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The development of new technologies will enable all gas pipelines to transport hydrogen in the future.

The Director of Underground Gas Storage Ltd., Vlado Vlašić, pointed out the atypical working conditions of the storage facility from the onset of the energy crisis and the turbulent gas prices on the world market. Thanks to the Croatian Government’s decision, which, in cooperation with HEP, set the conditions for filling the gas storage facility before winter (since gas storage facility leasees did not have a business interest in filling the gas storage), operational flexibility ensured the security of supplies. In line with the Croatian Government’s Regulation on the Elimination of Disruptions to the Domestic Energy Market, this year’s cycle of withdrawing gas from storage was extended until mid-May, when a new storage filling cycle will begin. The new gas storage filling cycle will be less stressful since the fill capacity is expected to be around 70% after the discharge cycle. Vlado Vlašić also presented a project involving a new underground gas storage facility at Grubišno Polje, which will significantly increase the security of natural gas supplies and the operational flexibility of the gas system. The construction of the first phase of this gas storage facility is nearing completion, and in the coming days, the planned trial operation of the new storage facility will commence.

The Technical Director of LNG Croatia Ltd., Ivan Fugaš, pointed out that the LNG terminal on the island of Krk is operating normally and without technical difficulties. Operations are focused on the project for expanding the terminal capacity to 6.1 billion m3/year and take place in cooperation with Plinacro, the gas transmission system operator. He also announced scheduled works taking the project into the final stage in two years. In particular, he pointed out that all regasification capacities have been leased up to 2038.


After the welcoming remarks, the invitational lecture was held by Andrea Stegher, Vice President and elected future President of the International Gas Union (IGU) from 2025 to 2028. Europe should be in the position to promote more natural gas, LNG, and long-term options, as well as promote more low-carbon and green gases and support the gas economy’s path towards innovation and technological development to contribute to a balanced energy evolution. He stressed the need for new sources of gas, including new green gases and low-carbon gases with carbon capture, use, and underground storage (CCUS) technologies. The new infrastructure would guarantee support for energy transitions while taking into account the different paths and conditions in the world. Sustainability and cost-effectiveness should be combined in the energy industry because one cannot do without the other.

After the invited lecture, a panel discussion moderated by Marko Biočina and with the participation of Marin Zovko from INA-Industrija nafte d. d., Daria Krstičević, MSc, from Plinacro d. o. o. and Ivan Fugaš from LNG Croatia LLC was held. The panelists welcomed the ongoing development of strategic projects to expand the capacity of the LNG terminal on the island of Krk to 6.1 billion m3/year and the construction of the Zlobin-Bosiljevo gas pipeline. There is a lot of interest in leasing new quantities of gas from the increased capacities at the LNG terminal on the island of Krk, given that current capacities have been leased until 2038. INA-Industrija nafte d. d. anticipates increased domestic gas production in the coming period. Large investments have been initiated for this very purpose. Panel discussion participants agreed that gas is a key component of a pragmatic transition, noting that the Croatian gas transmission system will be ready to receive and transport hydrogen in the future when the time comes.

After the panel discussion, Oksana Gantseva, MSc, from TrailStone Renewables GmbH, explained how geopolitical risks and tensions have affected sentiments in the EU gas markets. Over the last year, energy companies have been facing enormous political risks, and some have suffered serious financial losses due to the not having adequate risk management mechanisms to deal with such events. The topic was followed by Dániel Garai, MSc, exposing the impact of high prices on trading and liquidity on energy spot markets and the importance of securing payments. Michal Bella of the Central European Gas Hub presented the latest developments in central and eastern European gas markets, where prices based on gas hubs continue to place pressure on oil-indexed prices from gas delivery contracts. Filimon Antonopoulos from Tallon Commodities Limited outlined a solution for how companies can regain control of their costs and budgets and protect themselves in periods of extreme price volatility and irrational market conditions. A sustainable balance between the recent energy crisis (related to Europe’s energy supply) and the necessary energy transition poses a challenge for the oil and gas industry, which requires planned action. Alan Vranjković, PhD, from INA- Industrija nafte d. d. presented the topic of managing gas exploration through organic growth (INA industrija nafte). Matko Mamić explained the potential and prospects for natural gas exploration and international cooperation in Southeast Europe and the Mediterranean basin (Israel, Cyprus, Egypt, and Greece) and what this means for the security of the gas supply.

After all the speakers had finished their presentations, an interesting panel discussion took place within the respective thematic unit and was moderated by Dean Gnjidić. The lecturers described their talks in more detail, based on practical experiences and expectations regarding the future of the gas market. Gas traders stated that either high or low gas prices can be expected, but trading in extremely volatile conditions is very difficult and poses major financial challenges in the economy. Specifically, high gas prices cause a chain reaction and are not good for investments in the long run. Gas customers have learned a lot in the previous period of extreme natural gas prices, where the task of suppliers is to build a special mutual relationship of trust.

Renewable gases and low-carbon gases are a topic from the gas sector and numerous studies. Given that intermittent renewable energy sources are being increasingly introduced into energy grids, the reliability and robustness of the energy system is becoming an important criterion. To describe the robustness of the energy system, Professor Dr Gerhard Schmitz, developed a new indicator called the Resistance Index (RI). Resistance is the ability of a system to recover after a disturbance. Nikola Babić, MSc, showed how Bilfinger Engineering & Maintenance GmbH helps its customers take advantage of hydrogen technology (across the entire hydrogen value chain from production, storage, and transport to its final use). Zoran Vrsalović from the company Macel plin d. o. o. presented the technological possibility of producing synthetic natural gas from LPG. Vladimir Turina presented the vision of Viessmann d. o. o., which focuses on true innovation and climate solutions using renewable energy sources. The gas network will enable the use of biomethane and green hydrogen produced using wind and solar energy. The information network will optimize energy consumption and supply will be provided at the lowest cost. Given Europe’s efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to zero by 2050 (by reducing the share of fossil fuels in the economy and increasing the share of renewable energy sources), renewable hydrogen has been imposed as a key factor in achieving the set targets. The hydrogen production program using electrolyzers from Siemens Energy d. o. o. was presented by Marko Babić. Cong Wu emphasized that the fuel cell cogeneration system (FC-CHP) is important for decarbonizing the construction sector.

Infrastructure, innovation, and stable sources of funding guarantee a reliable future decarbonized energy system. The project of building a new underground gas storage facility in the Republic of Croatia, specifically the Grubisno Polje Underground Gas Storage (PSP), is recognized as a strategically important project. The first phase of the project, i.e., bringing the discovered and unexhausted natural gas deposits into production to convert the depleted gas deposit into an underground gas storage facility in the next phase of the project, was presented by Laslo Farkaš Višontai from the company Underground gas storage Ltd. The completion and commissioning of the new underground gas storage facility are planned for 2027 at the earliest. Konstantinos Koutsogiannis of Asprofos S.A. believes that oil and gas will be the main sources of energy in the next decade as renewable energy sources (solar energy and wind) have still not been sufficiently developed, and hydrogen is not mature for widespread use. In his presentation, he outlined his thesis why Greece can play the main role in ensuring energy security in Southeast and Central Europe. The Aquamarine Hungarian Gas Storage project began on 1 February 2021. Hungarian Gas Storage Ltd. intends to implement an electrolysis system with approximately 2.5 MW of total power and the appropriate hydrogen preparation technology at the Kardoskut underground gas storage site as part of the Aquamarine project. Csaba Lékó from Hungarian Gas Storage Ltd. showed the project phases completed so far, and construction works are expected to be completed by the end of the first quarter of 2023, after which the new equipment will undergo initial trial runs. Electricity storage is one of the biggest challenges of energy transition since wind and solar volatility require large and seasonal energy storage. Klaus Payrhuber, PhD, from INNIO Jenbacher GmbH & Co OG, outlined the benefits of decentralized and dispatch power plants for balancing the volatility of renewable energy sources. The focus is on the plan for transitioning from natural gas to using renewable gas based on biomethane and green hydrogen.

After all the speakers had finished their presentations, a panel discussion was moderated by Marko Blažević. The speakers described their presentations in more detail, and the dominant discussion was about hydrogen and its implementation in the gas system. In practice, there are technical and economic risks not yet discussed, as mentioned by Assoc Prof Darko Pavlović from Plinacro d. o. o. The process of introducing hydrogen is a generational problem lasting at least 30 years. In the coming period, the issue of hydrogen storage in geological formations will need to be resolved, as it is currently intensively under consideration in countries such as Austria, Italy, Germany, and the United States. Also, appointing stakeholders to handle hydrogen storage remains an open issue, and resolving regulatory restrictions will also have to be addressed.

This year too, students were given the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and creativity. Kristijan Ćurić, Tonka Vrdoljak and Domagoj Mrnjavčić, and upon presenting their completed papers (published in the Proceedings of the 38th International Scientific and Expert Meeting of Gas Professionals), showed that there are young professionals that the gas sector can count on in the future.

Vedran Majerus, MSc, from the company INA-Industrija nafte d. d., presented the application of a technological solution for installing a portable compressor unit at the Gola Duboka Gas Station. A pipeline rupture in a gas distribution system can cause gas to leak into the atmosphere. In distribution systems, mechanisms against uncontrolled outflow are installed and used to close and interrupt gas flow. Berislav Pavlović, PhD, from Gradska plinara Zagreb d.o.o. (City Gasworks Zagreb) presented how to test the dynamic features of mechanisms against the uncontrolled outflow of gas leakages into gas distribution systems, and Stefano Menghini, MSc, from Automa s.r.l. presented the concept of operating pressure modulation as a solution for reducing methane emissions.

Modernization of the gas system is impossible without introducing smart technologies, innovation, and digital transformation. Vanja Skopljak Štulić from Plinacro d. o. o. held a talk on information technologies in the maintenance operations and developing the gas transmission system belonging to Plinacro d. o. o., Marko Grbić from the company LNG Hrvatska d. o. o. on the created 3D virtual platform of the Floating Storage Regasification Unit (FSRU) ship connected to the maintenance system at the LNG Hrvatska d. o. o. The operational technology has been known to be vulnerable to cyber threats that can compromise the efficiency and reliability of critical infrastructure such as power plants, electricity grids, refineries, oil and gas pipelines, oil and gas storage. Josip Damjanović presented the solutions offered by Siemens Energy d. o. o. Vladimir Runtas from Holosys d. o. o. presented the Holosys system for remote reading of gas consumption and the achieved benefits after introducing the system on the market during the gas crisis. Marko Horvacki Zivalov from the company KONCEPTING d. o. o. pointed out that the modernization of the gas distribution network and increasing operating costs, along with increasing security, represent a major operational challenge among gas distributors. He believes that due to quality and functionality, the smart ultrasonic gas meter PRODIGI, from the manufacturer MESURA METERING s.r.l., is a new technological step. One of the key reasons for introducing digitalization to critical infrastructure and managing it is the lack of information. Solutions on how to overcome challenges on critical infrastructure and avoid damages through digitalization were presented by Ivan Juras from the company GDi d. o. o. An organization’s ability to quickly adapt to technological development trends defines its digital maturity. Digital maturity is key as it helps derive maximum benefits from technological innovations, resulting in safer and more reliable operations, as Marko Božac and Sangeeth Sagar Cenosco from Custom B.V. pointed out.

The potential behind developing liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals and their role in future European gas infrastructure are today one of the priority topics triggered by the crisis in Ukraine. Veljko Filipan, PhD, from the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, explained the liquefaction technologies for natural gas and gave an overview of the technologies applied today in cooling and cryogenic techniques while also referring to the refrigerant energy of LNG that could be used in its regasification. Tomislav Šarić from LNG Croatia LLC presented a number of theses on the importance of the LNG terminal located on the island of Krk for the security of supply in the Republic of Croatia and the surrounding countries. Given that all regasification capacities in this decade have already been leased, he highlighted the project of increasing the regasification capacity from the current 2.9 billion m3/year to  6.1 billion m3/year and planned in the coming period as an important development project. The previous lecture was followed by Ivan Fugaš from LNG Croatia LLC., who presented various possibilities for increasing the maximum terminal capacity for liquefied natural gas. The selected additional regasification module was explained in more detail, with a maximum natural gas regasification and shipping capacity of 250,000 Sm3/h. Amine EL KADIRI from Gaztransport & Technigaz (GTT) gave a lecture on the topic of LNG transport and LNG terminals. The first part of the presentation focused on ship-to-ship (STS) cargo transfer operations for the FSRU and a digital solution to improve operability. The second part of the presentation was dedicated to the onshore storage solution, such as standard flat-bottomed land-based tanks, as well as the new G concept from GTT for modular tanks. In addition to the simple replacement of imported gas from pipelines, LNG will also play an important role in the value chain of liquefied natural gas on a small scale. Julie Cejkova from Chart Ferox a.s. believes that, with the energy transition and energy independence, LNG has the potential to play a key role in Europe’s energy policy. She presented the technical feasibility of small-scale LNG and explained how the same cryogenic value chain concept is applicable to hydrogen.

After the speakers of the thematic unit completed their presentations, the panel discussion was moderated by Matija Galijot from LNG Croatia d. o. o. The speakers described in more detail their presentations and the perspective of further marketing of LNG, emphasizing the importance of the project to expand the capacity of the LNG terminal on the island of Krk to 6.1 billion m3/year, which will be the focus of the gas sector and gas market. A greater role of the so-called small-scale LNG plant is expected, especially in heavy truck transport and maritime transport. Amine EL KADIRI informed the gathering that Gaztransport & Technigaz (GTT) will build and commission the first hydrogen carrier in 2028, and the public will be subsequently further informed.

Two interesting lectures covered the topic of gas use in transport. Assoc Prof Luka Perković from the Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering provided in his presentation a detailed model of operation of the liquefied and compressed natural gas filling plant (LNG and CNG) in Zagreb. He presented an estimate of efficiency limits, energy consumption, and an analysis of individual operational segments. He also placed particular emphasis on the mass-energy balance and the thermodynamically modeled process that takes place in the LNG tank and CNG tank, the evaporator, and the dispenser. The implementation of LNG fuel on ships in shallow seas in the context of the upcoming new strict environmental requirements of the regulation was explained by Sanjin Kuljanić. He believes that shippers will turn to alternative fossil fuels and focus on LNG in the coming period.

After the lecture, a panel discussion was moderated by Davor Matic, MSc. The panelists expressed their united view of the great prospects of LNG and biogas in road and maritime transport in the next decade. Increasingly stringent fuel quality standards favor this approach. The construction of the necessary filling station infrastructure will be crucial for further developing gas use in transport. The Republic of Croatia still has a lot of room for improvement in the consumption of compressed natural gas (CNG) due to its good transit position in the region (such as the gas filling plant in Slavonski Brod). The panelists concluded that biogas, with further development of technologies and lower production prices and hydrogen, will have an important place in environmentally friendly zero-emission fuels in the future.

Krešimir Marijanović presented the new platform of the Brod-plin d. o. o. as the Distribution System Operator and its application for two end users from the household and entrepreneurial category that use natural gas combined with renewable energy sources. The gasification of Dalmatia, especially the Šibenik-Knin County, continues to progress significantly. Gasification has become a driver of the development of large industrial plants that has no alternative, as emphasized by Jakov Bakić from the company Inženjering za energetiku i plin d. o. o. The simplicity and flexibility of gas use by large consumers in the thermal energy sector give it an advantage over other energy sources. Aleksandar Karre from Plinacro d. o. o. described the regular inspections of the gas pipeline in the company Plinacro d. o. o. In this context, he showed the repairing of the damaged Ludbreg-Koprivnica gas pipeline. Vedran Prica, from the company Feromihin d. o. o., showed in his presentation how the company Feromihin d. o. o. uses the device for calibrating LBC.

At a time of escalating gas prices (and other energy sources) on the market, traditionally stable and conservative activities face several unforeseen challenges, market shocks, government interventions and unprecedented oscillations. Tamara Jakšić from MADIRAZZA & PARTNERS Attorneys at Law LLC presented a legal analysis of the most significant risks stemming from energy activities in trading and supplying gas, and presented legal instruments to mitigate these risks or, at best, eliminate them. Marija Mušec, LL.M. from the Law firm Bardek, Lisac, Mušec, Skoko and partners LTD, in cooperation with CMS Reich-Rohrwig Hainz gave an overview of European legislation and the 2050 Croatian Hydrogen Strategy regarding the upcoming regulation of hydrogen in Croatian legislation. Petra Šantić, LL.M. attorney in cooperation with Schönherr, emphasized the importance of hydrogen, which is among the key priorities for achieving the goals of the European Green Deal and which plays an important role in the transitioning the European Union towards climate neutrality by 2050 while presenting the new legal framework of the European Union for the development of the hydrogen market.

At the end of the big three-day meeting, the Director of the Croatian Gas Centre Ltd., Anita Dubravica Baričević, thanked all patrons, sponsors, speakers, media sponsors, media representatives, and other participants of the meeting for their support and contribution to the success of the gathering and presented data on attendance at this conference and exhibition. The Vice President of the Croatian Gas Association, Srećko Ezgeta, thanked all participants, moderators, and organizers for the successfully held gathering. At the end of the closing, he particularly pointed out that natural gas will, for many years to come, have an important role in the overall energy sector of the European Union and the Republic of Croatia in the decarbonization process and mark the transition period towards a low-carbon future, providing the necessary time to adapt to new technologies.

The next 39th International Scientific and Expert Meeting of Gas Professionals will be held on 8 – 10 May 2024 in Opatija, as is the tradition.